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Electrical discharge machines – Technology

Emerging trends in Electrical Discharge Machines

erosion Spark is a modern machining technique with a distinct advantage, as a result of which their use is becoming more and more crucial.

EDM remains indispensable technique. Today the program has revolutionized the way most high-precision molds, dies and complex machined parts being produced. The most enthusiastic users of EDM to find solutions to the challenges ahead in the metal cutting industry. The capacity of the machine, the hardened steel parts carbide highest level of accuracy and superior finish without operator intervention had been a dream so when EDM came into existence.

EDM these days is not as dark as a term that some years ago, but there are all sorts of vague statements available. For years, scholars have been many studies on the process of discharge of EDM. A variety of hypotheses have been accomplished, but still even now, the differences to understand the download process exists.

It is very difficult to describe such a complex process, of which most are invisible and are accompanied by physical-chemical phenomena such as sound, heat, light, electromagnetic radiation etc. To this day, are neither fully understood nor computable. Various theories mathematical models for estimating the gap condition has been presented, but all are approximations, and whatever manufacturer has estimated the gap condition better, is a leader in the field of EDM.

EDM is a process for cutting materials and cutting material are not touching each other, there is always a physical examination gap between the two. It is likely that this gap has opened perception gap in the understanding of EDM, so it is said that EDMing is an art. Over a period of 20 years, many innovative ideas have made the predictable batch processing.

Ater, of the Second World War, the Russian scientist BR Lazarenko and NI Lazarenko invented EDM process, and since then there has been continuous research. In the past 20 years, EDM has become 6-8 times more productive.

It is very essential to know the basic input / output of EDM to understand and appreciate the innovation in the field of EDM

INPUT

v electrode material

v work piece material

Di v electric media.

Process EDM

high temperature v

v Electromagnetic forces

OUTPUT

Cutting speed v

v Precision Work

v Surface finish.

Traditionally, the program has been classified into two distinct categories because of different forms adopted in carrying out the process.

1. SINK or sink EDM or EDM RAM EDM

2. Wire EDM

SINK EDM:

We all know that ended EDM job can not be better than the electrode used. The output performance parameters such as surface finish, accuracy and productivity depends mainly on the overall selection of electrode material. It is known that 70% is labor and 20-30% is the cost in the manufacture of electrodes. In recent 15 years, there has been a phenomenal development in the quality of electrode material available, especially graphite. Graphite imports are now readily available, used especially in overseas countries.

In India, we are seeing a change of copper as an electrode material graphite. To choose the right material, the supplier offers nearly 15 types of graphite material and complete performance characteristic

Deciding which material to use for example, "copper or graphite" depends mainly on effective method of producing the electrode, the size of Employment, finishing requirements, multiple options electrode. In general, if you ask the user of EDM in Asia, the choice is made of copper and graphite if the user is from USA. Ultimately, the graphite is preferred when the electrode size is large, fast and easy to machine on the machining center. Good structure and fine-grained quality of imported sintered graphite is now available in India. Problem is important in machining graphite dust. It is a big headache unless the machines are essentially equipped with special vacuum system to handle the dust.

Copper is the material most popular in India because it is cheap and can be machined in a single machine and lathe. copper electrode in the manufacture of wire EDM is the most popular and fastest method while graphite wire EDM is very slow and cumbersome, therefore, mostly avoided.

From point of view of EDM process, graphite is very thermally stable material and therefore has very low wear of the electrodes, where as the copper is comparatively high wear.

Although the EDM machine must produce a replica of electrode used, wear of the electrodes allowed to happen so easily and affect the accuracy and finish the job.

It is necessary

1. The use of multiple electrodes for example, roughing and finishing electrodes.

2. Dress electrode during the EDM process of cars using electric discharge dressing.

3. Changing the electrode during EDM process.

4. The use of 2D/3D orbital cycles to compensate for wear of the electrodes.

5. The use of adaptive control to precisely control the EDM process to reduce electrode wear. These various characteristics and strategies used to achieve the precise dimension and finish on the die or mold.

Innovations in CNC technology has also found its way into too EDM, EDM is a very slow speed CNC plays no significant role in improving productivity.

But it is

  1. Improving the process of generating EDM of few-cycle preserved in terms of EDM

Orbit is known as CYCLE.

  1. Use process control EDM adaptation by continuously monitoring the gap

modulate the pulse condition and EDM.

  1. Simplifies manufacturing electrode by using multiple segments

electrodes and the use of ATC (automatic tool changer).

  1. Automate manual of interruption as the change of the electrodes by the use of the tool

magazine and thus altering parameters EDM using automatic

selection of codes of EDM.

  1. Provides user interface powerful, allowing the user to define only

Performance and production and the machine automatically select the steps of

EDMing and EDM parameters.

6. Machine equipped with fuzzy logic based adaptive control

to significantly improve the process of EDM with which productivity.

Direct drive AC brushless motors are also used by some manufacturers to achieve higher speeds of RAM. This improved performance during the EDM machining of deep cavity, where very rapid retraction of the electrode for a short period is necessary to remove residual EDM in cavity, thus avoiding damage to the electrode / cavity due to the arc. Few manufacturers use a linear motor for higher speeds of RAM.

EDM is a slow process, EDMing a large molds and dies is a long time. Moreover, high-speed milling machines, popularly known as HSM have come up in the market that can machine directly hardened die plates.

The theory of hard milling is essentially the same as conventional milling. milling drive is performed in a specially designed machine tools and cutting is done by a very high RPM (15000-40000). In such cases, the majority of material removal the typical pressure-plate mold is made of high speed of the machine and the only complex cavities machined by EDM process. This scheme is not cheaper unless dies / Molds are large and repetitive nature.

Both processes, EDM and HSM have certain limitations and now complement each other in stores Indian work and tool rooms.

EDM process has been refined with a flexibility, repeatability and accuracy to be high art EDMing specialty in a place of importance as the preferred methods for many different types of jobs.

WIRE EDM:

Concept basic material is the same as removing a sink EDM, however, a wire EDM machine, by design is very different. For example, All CNC machines are WireEDM where as Pica-EDM may or may not be a CNC machine.

These machines have been commercially available in India in early 80s. Development in the field of electronics and CNC has made a significant impact on wire EDM machines, say, now has 6-8 times better performance compared with the previous version of the machines.

Unlike the sink EDM, electrode EDM wire case is a simple diameter, fixed wire, so the complexity Design and manufacture of electrodes, simply disappears.

Efficient and high performance machining hardened parts mainly depends on numerous factors peripherals, in addition to the machine itself. These are so important to be treated as the machine itself. Son

  1. The electrode wire material.

  2. Metal work piece and preparation.

  3. Clean water dielectric.

  4. Clean & controlled environment.

1. Wire Electrode material:

Wire EDM has also evolved with the evolution machine to meet the changing demands of machine technology and new applications.

First cable never was used by WEDM wire copper. Soon came into existence brass wire which is essentially alloy of copper and zinc. It is well established that increasing the percentage of zinc, more speed cutting and less wire breakage (We will not go into the theoretical aspects of this.) also improves performance in terms of better surface finish and integrity of carbide cutting pieces and especially PCD – poly crystalline diamond.

Due to the limitations of the manufacturing process, not a pure zinc wire can draw or domestic manufacture. Prohibit existing manufacturing process of drawing wire reliable and cost if the zinc content is above 40%. coated wire came into existence with pure zinc 100%, but due to limitations on the thickness of the coating process can be only a few microns.

In wire coated zinc is consumed rapidly due to its low temperature of vaporization., hence its effective use is limited to 80 mm maximum thickness of workpiece. Diffused annealed wire with a coating thickness of 30-40 microns and heat treatment by a process called annealing as diffused. Contains 45% zinc provides optimal speed and many manufacturers, including Electronic technology is based on this type of wire.

Researchers are working on technologies to improve the content of zinc. Five years ago, Dr. Dan Tomalin discovered an innovative process called Gamma gradual wire, which allows 65% of zinc to maintain the cutting speed increases 10-50% in many cases.

We now have the option of using nearly a dozen different types of wire to achieve greater productivity. brass Brass coated wire diffuse brass tubular steel, hard or soft brass wire molybdenum are available to name a few in the world.

As the wire diameter is only 0.1 to 0.3 mm, higher current densities are not possible. So current pulses with a duration very small, to below 1.5 to 2 milliseconds. with high current peaks up to 500A or more are required to be discharged uniformly. Due to innovations in the field of electronics, fast switching devices such as power MOSFET made it possible to move from short duration high peak currents. than the number of discharge pulses per unit time, the greater the removal of material, which is called as cutting speed, usually specified as mm2/min.

In the past 20 years, the speed cutting has risen from 30 mm2/min. Mm2/min 300., Almost 10 times.

WORK PART METALLURGY

Normally, all machines manufacturers shows the cutting speed and finished in a particular grade hardened steel for example, indicate Electronica machine cutting speed and surface finish of steel in HCHC the brochure.

Cutting speed and accuracy are different for different materials due to variation in the pattern of metal behavior during EDMing.

TITANIUM:

This is not very common in India, tool room, but it is an important metal in Aerospace and racing car manufacturers worldwide. Because of its natural properties, which finds its use in the human body for the replacement of various joints and dental implants.

WEDM approx cuts titanium. 90% and 100% speed tool steel, depending on cable used. Due to water as a dielectric process, oxidation makes cutting surface during cutting blue titanium.

Special circuits generators to combat electrolysis minimize these effects.

COPPER:

The use of copper is very high in many sectors, especially in jewelry, electrical wires, coins, tubes and electrodes for EDM pulse, etc. cut wire EDM cut approx. at 80-85% speed tool steel.

ALUMINUM

This metal is commercially available in various alloys. Al has a lower melting temperature, therefore, cut approximately 250-300% faster than steel. faster speeds and rougher final results are, while EDMing aluminum.

CARBIDE

It is very hard material, mixed with cobalt as a binder material and then sintered. Cobalt is high conductivity, and enforces carbide. WEDming Meanwhile, the cobalt melts first, allowing loosely bound carbide. This exposes the carbide particles and due to electrolysis of water as a dielectric, and further oxidation leaching away carbide exposed. This is a common phenomenon in all machines and is known WEDM loss of cobalt which essentially degrades tool life.

Technology guidelines given by the manufacturer to minimize this effect.

CLEAN WATER DIELECTRIC

Water as a dielectric plays a vital role in WEDM in achieving optimum performance.

Essential characteristics dielectric water are: –

1. Must be "mechanically ie CLEAN" size of dissolved particles must be filtered at the level of microns. Paper filter cartridge filtration systems or minerals from the bed are mostly offered.

2. Should be "CLEAN heat." Water heated due to the EDM process and water pumps, water circulating to run the EDM process. Water Coolers is presented as a standard to maintain the temperature of the dielectric during metal cutting.

3. Should be "chemically clean. Deionization of water occurs during cutting and conductivity of water increases. deionizer mixed bed resins are offered along with automatic conductivity conductivity controllers to maintain a recommended level.

CLEANING AND CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT

Place where the machine is kept must be maintained at a uniform temperature. Normally, it should be like half toolshed maintained between 20 and 22? C.

Temperature changes during cutting may cause –

– Parts to bend or twist

– Oil deform

– Stretching due to temperature coefficient, the latter instance, it deteriorates the quality of the pieces.

In India, due to Tips from the summer heat, many problems related to accuracy part surfaces.

Also found that the rate cut in more drops WEDM 15% of temperature increase of 10%.

Limitations WEDM and its remedies.

Bow and taper effect and remedy.

WEDM machines are designed to generate a cone of the qualifications required for having an axis parallel to the axis XY assistant principal. But the process itself generates certain WireEDM Arc / effect affecting the employment details of Taper. Each manufacturer offers some guidelines to overcome these deficiencies by applying cuts adjustment or skim multiple cut or cut after the first cut. Low Energy Precision skim cuts depend mainly on three parameters and precise control pulse energy, electrode wire vibration travel without perfect control mechanism running water.

Many manufacturers have risen to 5 skim technology cuts with its innovative control more than three parameters.

CORNER OF THE STRATEGY OF CONTROL:

Due to high mechanical forces and electromagnetic acting on the wire in the spark, which during the cutting of wire, tends to deviate from its planned route, creating damage to the corners edges or corners with a very small corner radius on the job. Each manufacturer provides innovative strategy incorporated fuzzy logic control to retain the shape corner wire during cutting.

SUBMERGED MACHINING:

In these types of machines, wire cutting operation is done in a water bath. In difficult conditions of poor discharge machining cut a high degree cone, extrusion, stacked submerged machining workpieces is always preferred. Most manufacturers now offer machines underground.

Heat effect on metal surface integrity of the surface:

During the process of EDM surface the material is affected by many phenomena that directly modify the structure of the parent material. The result is that the area affected is not integral base material.

material defects are mainly due to the various processes that are triggered from the start of the initial strike of EDM spark.

Surface damage

  • Due to the thermal process.

  • Due to the chemical process.

  • Due to electrolysis And the corrosion process.

Damage caused by heat-treatment

With the initial strike of the spark on the metal surface, the material is melted and formed crater. The molten metal is drawn back to the spark of the crater due to surface tension.

This material is frozen in the cut surface produce a layer that is very different properties than the parent material. This layer is known as "white coat" or "recast layer.

Immediately below the white layer is an area known as "HAZ" 'affected zone.

This new hardened layer formed because the temperature has risen above the tempering temperature, but not melted the surface. This layer is hard and brittle.

Damage effect of chemicals

EDM surface is subjected to a chemical contamination of the electrode and dielectric. From a metallurgical point of view Carbon is the major pollutant. A small amount of carbon has a profound effect on the behavior of steel. In WEDM machines, the chemistry of the particles contaminated ion is more or less neutralized by the process of Deion. But in RAM EDM no such mechanism exists, it is always advisable to change the oil dielectric periodically.

The damage caused by the effect of electrolysis-

WEDM process uses water as a dielectric workpiece as wire as anode and cathode. Load voltage leads to a reaction. When water molecules are reduced to the cathode and oxidized at the anode. Thus Part more or less work the anode that is consumed in the type of metal used. This deterioration causes the surface of the workpiece.

Impact

Due to the EDM process, several layers and white layer, a layer of re-hardened, tempered layer is formed in the parent material.

high speed switching Today, short-term, high-tech peak pulse current provides greater control to minimize such effects, but the nature of the process heat EDM is making it impossible to completely eliminate such defects. thickness of the affected area can vary up to a few microns, depending on Roughing / Finishing parameter settings.

Skim current retail cuts can improve the surface.

Reduction of the mechanical properties of metal located in the affected layer contributed to shorten tool life.

Effect on the integrity of the surface pressure effect / punch hard metal yield surface profile, thus wear resistance.

New trends in EDM Application

EDM in molding INDUSTRY

Vertical EDM has been a mainstay in the mold making operation for decades. In recent years, the WEDM performance boost was used in mold making industry too.

mold making is an age old craft that, in theory, has not changed since ages.

One part is replicated by turning or forcing a melt in a pre-printed form or in the cavity. better accuracy and finish cavity mold will result in better reproduction of dimensions the piece and the mold life. This is especially necessary for the plastic parts are usually shaped like a finished piece.

Application areas WEDM manufacturer of molds:

1. Electrode decisions:

This is the first use of WEDM in making mold. Complex copper electrodes, multi- identical electrodes accurate and free of burrs, this walled electrodes consumed uneconomic and very difficult time.

2. Working Mold Base:

Precise pocket insert holder plate mold base larger and thicker the mold base bigger savings. Square inserts can be easily cut no corner radius.

3. Insert Mold:

Due to cut without cutting and also very fast without accumulated in details due to the accumulation.

complicated geometry of involute gears or spline is virtually impossible to generate in conventional machine tool room. WireCut has no limitations the width of the tooth pressure angle and other characteristics of involute gears. Any cavity involute gear can be cut into any of the contraction factor easily.

4. Extrusion die plate:

Extrusion die plate essentially needs a large-angle can be easily cut by WireCut.

5. View Gear Mold:

Plastic gears clock is impossible to perform due to the small size of the teeth. Using wire of 50-70 microns, cutting this part is easy.

6. Inserts

Connector mold inserts require several layers of close tolerance, is very labor intensive and very expensive to grind and assemble. All this is avoided by using WEDM.

7. Core Pin and pin hole eject

Wire EDM may actually cut all through holes in the cavity inserted after hardening. Holes will be directly with the size and have died sharp edges in the cavity, resulting in no possibility of shock.

8. Reduce or eliminate polishing

mold polishing in India is labor intensive hard work, and can be avoided by wire EDM are now able to provide down to 1 μ Rmax finish.

Micro EDM Machining

Micromachining is a basic technology used for the production of miniaturized parts and components.

Until recently, emphasis has been on production microelectronic components with etching and other fabrication techniques of photos. Today, with the tremendous need for the development of micro machines, using micro-machine technology is becoming very popular tool.

Micro-machining is the generic term for very small machines sub millimeter by millimeter size, like micro-robots, capsules inserted into the human body for medical, micro-motor, micro sensors etc. Micromachining using machine tools has the advantage of machining of three dimensional shapes with ease.

In recent years there has been an increased demand is the technology of micro machining of various industries such as

  • Aerospace

  • Medical devices

  • Automotive Industry

micromachining techniques to create pieces less than 100 microns only thicker than a human hair – hair human is 75 microns.

These micro-machining techniques are used to manufacture parts such as

  • medical components

  • Micro modules

  • Electronic tools

  • Micro valves

  • Tools for IC

  • Sub Miniature – actuators and motors

Productivity and automation aspects

Stores today strive to achieve the highest employment level of manufacturing efficiency and productivity.

Automation can be a solution, but automation is not viable for the sake of automation, there are many patients with loss of time, minimizing if it can provide opportunities for competitive advantage.

Typical EDM job shop work primarily in four distinct stages.

  1. preparation of the piece and part programming

  2. Job development / Align / upload / download

  3. Cutting work

  4. The inspection work

While WEDM machine is running, there are many factors of human intentions come into play as –

  1. threaded wire or reel change.

  2. Adjournment.

  3. Consumables replacement.

In all aspects before making single job cut in income yields.

Although all other aspects are important to run the store are a waste of time and can think of minimized.

Let's see this from the point of view of the "Lean Job Shop", in which automation can be a means improve productivity. Lean manufacturing, a commitment to eliminate waste in abbreviated form, simplifying procedures and speeding up production, can be a concept.

Modern machine manufacturer and the manufacturer of accessories WEDM have worked for it helps the user by bringing many features and accessories to minimize human intervention and thereby reduce waste of time and improve the cutting time available. Let's review.

  1. Working preparation and programming: It includes the planning of strategies such as cutting the hole in the beginning, the job of fixing margins, rough / skim cutting machine manufacturers, etc. to provide guidance and hands on the recipes of technology, which can run without intervention, thereby saving time.

  2. Tools: sufficient amount of time can be saved by using tools available nowadays

  • Good Quality

  • Affordable price

It offers:

  • single minute exchange die (SMED)

  • Time just fixing to die

  • And use one command line function of the machine.

This substantially reduces the downtime of the machine.

1. Cutting work: cutting working time can be improved by selecting the speed appropriate court and court of multiple strategies.

Although manufacturers specify the maximum cutting speed, but speed means maximum building defects, which deteriorates the precision and finish the job. Time is lost later in the reduction of such defects.User has to decide optimum cutting speed rather than the maximum cutting speed for maximum cutting efficiency general.

2. Labour inspection: Machines art are capable of delivering consistent product quality in terms of accuracy and finish, as long as all the factors / guidelines listed in the preceding paragraph are met. inspection time work can be saved substantially by selecting controls very few dimensions.

waste of time due to interventions

1. WIRE:

Material defects, misuse of the cutting parameters can lead to wire breakage.

Manual wire threaded consume at least 5 minutes when the operator is in front of the machine. This time can be saved by using Automatic Wire Threading facilities.

Today this function is available in most wire EDM.

Auto wire threading time is usually up to 45 seconds which is much in terms of time savings.

In the case of multi cavity die, the machines with AWT wire is automatically cut and threaded by The program, which get to make its monitoring operations.

2. wire spool loading and unloading

Changing the coil of wire becomes a interruption in case of large jobs where the cutoff time is more than 24 hours. Superior kg. Reels up to 45 kg are available that will last several days and will be removed from the reel frequent change over time.

Special accessories provided by the manufacturer can use to reduce intervention human.

3. Interruption

In Indian conditions are not frequent power failures.

Many shop owners have Generators backup energy. But very few have incorporated Auto Exchange installation. Manual change of generator consumes more time and depends on the operator's attention. This time ranges from 5 minutes to 15 minutes.

Generator with automatic change over facility will start within 1 minute.

The machine Auto power: recovery facility will resume the cut in a minute.

4. The substitution of consumer goods: Manufacturer provides information about the life of consumables such as current pills, resin, liner, filters, etc.

predefined schedule replacement of consumables help in saving of time.

Automation:

Now a day, especially in developed countries, the machines are equipped with tool magazine / Robotics job unloader for loading and unloading, etc to manage unmanned machine.

Improved performance in terms of increased cutting speed tolerable working accuracy and surface finish of wire EDM has become popular not only in rooms of tools, but also for production applications, that was not profitable a few years ago.

Ultimately, innovations in EDM are intended to simplify the task of EDMing in an economical way to produce tools for life in the always competitive tools, mold manufacturing, aerospace, pharmaceutical and many industries.

About the Author

CEO Electronica Machine Tools Ltd., Pune, India

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