Tube Adapter Olympus

Tube Adapter Olympus

To use USB to charge batteries

Battery Requirements
1. of a single cell lithium-ion and lithium polymer batteries
Today's lithium battery to its maximum rated voltage is typically between 4.1V to 4.2V. The current market is being sold, the newer, higher capacity battery, the voltage range of 4.3V to 4.4V. Typical prismatic lithium-ion (Li +) and lithium polymer (Li-Poly) battery capacity from 600mAh to 1400mAh.
The pairs of Li + and Li-Poly battery, the load curve is preferred from the constant charging current and continuing until the battery voltage reaches the rated voltage. Then, the voltage across the Olympus -PS BLM1 regulated battery charger. These two methods are a constant current regulator (DC) constant voltage (CV) of cargo. Therefore, this type of charger is usually referred to as cccv charger. Cccv magazine in the CV mode, the current battery charge starts to decline. The use of a 1.5C to 0.5C charge rate of a typical load, then when the battery reaches its full capacity of 80% to 90%, DC charger mode to CV mode. Once the charging mode CV chargers, battery current is monitored, when the minimum threshold current (a few tens of mA o), the charger to terminate the load. A typical lithium battery charge curve shows in Figure 2.
Figure 2. Using cccv battery charger Li + when the typical curve
Figure 1 shows the USB voltage drop of indicators can be see that the center downstream port voltage low-power ports are not adequate margin is difficult to charge the 4.2V battery. a load path small amount of extra resistance will be no interruption of the normal load.
Li + and Li-Poly batteries should be charged under the right temperature. The manufacturer recommended maximum load temperature of typically +45 ° C to +55 ° C between the maximum allowable discharge temperature can exceed 10 ° C or less. Materials used in these batteries, the chemical nature of the lively, if the battery temperature exceeds 70 ° C, combustion occurs. Battery Charger Li-ion must have thermal shutdown circuit monitors the battery temperature if the temperature of the battery temperature exceeds the maximum load recommended by the manufacturer, then the termination charge.
2. Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH)
NiMH batteries must be heavier than lithium batteries, its energy density is lower than lithium batteries. All the while, NiMH batteries are cheaper than lithium batteries, but recently the price difference between the two is narrowing. NiMH batteries have a standard size, in most applications can be a direct replacement for alkaline batteries. Each section of the battery voltage of 1.2 V, 1.5 V will complete.
commonly used source of constant current for NiMH batteries. Upon arrival at completeness, exothermic chemical reaction will occur and lead to increases in temperature of the battery, the battery terminal voltage reduction. Can detect the battery temperature growth rate or an exchange rate of negative voltage, and is used to complete the load. The charge termination methods are known as dT / dt? V. loading rate is very low, dT / dt? V less obvious, is difficult to detect accurately. Overcharge the battery began to enter the state, dT / Dt? V's response that begins to show. At this point if it continues to charge, can damage the battery.
Termination detection in the load level is greater than C / 3, when a low load when the rate more easier. rate of temperature increase by about 1 ° C / min, -? V in response to a low charge rate that when the most obvious. After fast charge suggested that a lower current recharge period of full-time sufficient battery (extra charge). Complement at the end of charging period following the introduction of C/20 or C/30 trickle charge current to compensate for self discharge effect, so that the Olympus E-420 battery remained in a state of complete. Figure 3 shows the DS2712 NiMH charger with NiMH batteries (having been part of the electrical charge) for charging curve of battery voltage. In the diagram above a curve of data are being poured into the battery charge current when the access to, the following data Natiao curve when the measured current is cut. In the DS2712, this voltage difference is used to distinguish between NiMH and alkaline batteries. If you detect alkaline batteries, the DS2712 not loaded.
Figure 3. Use of NiMH rechargeable controller DS2712
Switching and linear
USB 2.0 specification allows low port power to supply the maximum current of 100mA, high-power port to provide the maximum current of 500mA. If you use a linear fit of the device to adjust the battery load current, which is the biggest load current available. adjustment linear device (Figure 4) power dissipation is P = VQ x IBATT. This will result in the adjustment the heating of the tube, you may need to install the radiator to prevent overheating.
Figure 4. The power is equal to the current battery charge times by adjusting the tension on the valve
It corresponds to the 5V nominal input voltage, to adjust the power consumption of the device and battery type the number and battery voltage.
Figure 5. Using voltage 5.0V NiMH battery USB charging port, the linear fit of the device power consumption
Nominal input voltage from 5.0 V, USB charger battery performance linear NiMH battery power consumption in Figure 5. Pairs of a single cell load, the efficiency of a linear charger is only 30%, two pairs of batteries, the efficiency is 60%. 500mA current with a single battery, the power will up to 2W. This power is usually need to increase the heat sink. The energy consumption of 2 W, the thermal resistance of 20 ° C / W radiator to +25 ° C temperature atmosphere is heated to about 65 ° C, until full capacity performance, but also the need to assist the flow of cooling air. enclosed space at a static air, the temperature will be higher.
Based change the stock regulator to address several issues. First, when compared to the linear charger can be at a rate faster, more current on the battery (Figure 6). Due to lower power consumption, less heat and thermal management issues are also reduced. At the same time, due to lower operating temperature, chargers and more reliable.
Figure 6. In a single NiMH battery, charger and change linear charger load at different times
Figure 6 in the calculations and assumptions are based on the following conditions: high-power USB port maximum allowable current (500 mA) for about 90% of the charges of the converter switching regulator money can not use synchronous rectification with an efficiency of 77%.
Circuit examples
Figure 7 shows the circuit used for a single NiMH battery switching regulator money. Use a charge controller DS2712 termination charge current regulation the load. charge controller to control the temperature, battery voltage and battery current. If the temperature exceeds 45 ° C or below 0 ° C, the controller not charge the battery.
Figure 7. USB ports on a single fast-charging NiMH battery outline
Shown in Figure 7, Q1 is the lower switching charger Power transistor; L1 is the inductance of filter; D1 is a diode or rectifier. Input capacitance C1 as 10? F ceramic capacitor low ESR filter. Using capacitors tantalum or electrolytic capacitor C1 others replace the charger performance degradation. R7 is the current sense amplifier controller sense resistance. tension DS2712 0.125V reference and with 24mV hysteresis. By providing CSOUT closed loop, switch-mode current control. CC1 Q2 load control to specify when the door you can drive Q1 door. Q1 and Q2 are low Vt (Gate – source threshold voltage) of pMOSFET. CC1 and CSOUT are low, Q2 drain – source voltage will be slightly larger than Vermont Voltage and voltage drop is a door CSOUT switching voltage of Q1.
CC1 is low, control of starting current closed loop. Figure 8 shows the waveforms when the ignition switch. The top of the waveform is 0.125? (The voltage across sense resistor, as wave is less than Q1 drain voltage to GND. The principle, when you open Q1 (CC1 and CSOUT are low), the inductor current is upward. When the current increased as great that the tension within the meaning of resistance to 0.125V when CSOUT becomes high, the off switch. Since then, the inductor current began to decline, until tension within the meaning of resistance to approximately 0.1 V, CSOUT also becomes low power level. while CC1 is low, the process continues.
Figure 8. NiMH USB charger to start the waveform
internal state machine controls the work DS2712 CC1. Load the beginning, the first of the state DS2712 battery tests to ensure that the battery voltage is between 1.0V to 1.65V and confirmed that the temperature in ° 0 C to +45 ° C between. If the voltage is below 1.0V, 0.125 DS2712 is the duty cycle is set CC1, trickle charge the battery to avoid battery damage. Once the battery voltage exceeds 1.0V, the State machine fast charge mode. Fast charge cycle 31/32 hours, or approximately 97%.
"Skip" within the range of impedance battery of tests to ensure no errors in a battery charger high impedance (such as alkaline batteries) to load. Detected after 2mV of? V, final Fast Charge. If not detected? V, will fast charge, fast charge until the timeout timer, or to detect overheating or condition over-voltage fault (including the fault impedance) so far. Fast Charge completed (because of? V, or fast charge timer timeout) then the regular complement DS2712 as cargo, the duty cycle of 12.5%, the duration of fast charge time to time established by half. Extra loading is complete, the charger into maintenance mode, the duty cycle of 1 / 64, until the E-410 Olympus battery is removed or power again.
As shown in Figure 7, using high-power USB port on the charger and 2100mAh NiMH battery, time quick charge for a little over 2 hours, around 3 hours to complete, including full funding including the perception of charging. Lessons from 420 mA current port. If you need to house enumeration process and the need to allow high current operation, R9 and soil in series between an open-drain nMOSFET. If the MOSFET off, then the IMF floating empty DS2712 in a pending state.
Summary
For small consumer electronics devices in terms of battery, the USB port is an economic power and practice. To comply fully with USB 2.0, USB port connected to the load must be able host a two-way communication. The burden must also meet the requirements of power management, including low-power mode, and easy to determine when the host has to carry a means of drawing large currents. Although some compatible system to adapt to most USB host, but sometimes unexpected results. Only a good understanding of the USB specification requirements and expectations of the load can be regulated when it comes to compatibility between the complexity and load to achieve a better balance.

About the Author

As a leading UK laptop battery retailer over the past ten years, We carry nearly all the laptop batteries for brands such as HP, DELL, ACER, APPLE, SONY, TOSHIBA, ASUS laptop ,ect.. All of our laptop batteries come with a 30 Day Money Back Guarantee as well as a One Year Warranty

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