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Virtual Reality


  What is virtual reality?

Virtual reality (VR) is a technology that allows users to interact with a computer-simulated environment, whether that environment is a simulation of real world or an imaginary world. It is an artificial environment created with the software and presented to the user so that the user accepts and suspends belief as a real environment. On a computer, virtual reality experience is primarily through two of the five senses: sight and sound

Most of today's environments virtual reality are primarily visual experiences, displayed on a computer screen or stereoscopic displays, but some simulations include additional information sensory, as the sound through speakers or headphones.

virtual reality can be divided into:

  • The simulation a real environment training and education.
  • The development of an imagined environment for a game or an interactive story.


The concept of virtual reality has been around for decades, even though the public actually had no notice of him in early 1990.

Mid 1950: Named director of photography and Morton Heilig device: Sensorama

Theater experience designed to stimulate the senses of all its audiences, "luring them to the stories more effectively. Building a console in 1960 called Sensorama including a stereoscopic display, fans, emitting odor, stereo speakers and a chair in motion. He also invented a mounted TV screen designed to allow a user to watch TV 3-D. User passive audience for movies, but many of the concepts Heilig would find its way into the field of VR.

In 1961, Philco Corporation engineers and Device: Headsight

HMD developed the first time in 1961, called the Headsight. The helmet includes a screen video and tracking system, which engineers linked to a CCTV system camera. They designed the HMD for use in dangerous situations – a user can observe a real environment remotely, adjusting the camera angle spinning head.

Bell Labs used a similar HMD for helicopter pilots. They HMDs linked to infrared cameras connected to the bottom of the helicopters, which allowed drivers have a clear field Vision during flight in the dark.

In 1965: A computer scientist named Ivan Sutherland

Conceived as he called the "ultimate display." Using this screen, a person could look at a virtual world that seems so real as the world the user physically lived in. This vision led almost all the developments in the field of virtual reality. Sutherland concept includes:

  • A virtual world that seems real to any observer, seen through an HMD.
  • A computer that maintains the world model in real time.
  • The ability to manipulate virtual objects users a realistic and intuitive.

For years, VR technology was kept out of public eye. Almost all development simulations focused on the vehicle until the 1980s.

In 1984, Michael McGreevy and devices: humancomputer Interface (Hci)

He began to experiment with virtual reality technology as a way of advancing humancomputer interface (HCI) designs. HCI still plays an important role in the investigation of VR, and moreover allow the media to collect on the idea of virtual reality a few years later.

In 1987, Jaron Lanier coined the term virtual reality in 1987.


Other production sensory VE system should be adjusted in real time as a user explores the environment. sensory stimulation should be consistent if a user is to feel immersed in a VE. If the VE shows a scene completely immobile, could not wait to feel the winds. Similarly, if the VE puts you in the center of a hurricane, you would not expect to feel a gentle breeze or detect the smell of roses.

time delay between the time in which a user acts as the virtual environment that reflects action is called latency. latency usually refers to the delay between the time a user turns his head or moves eyes and the change in point of view, although the term can also be used for a delay in other sensory outputs. The modeling studies flight show that humans can detect a latency of more than 50 milliseconds. When a user detects latency, which makes him conscious of being in an artificial environment and destroys the feeling of immersion.

An immersive experience suffers if a user is aware of the reality that surrounds him. Truly immersive experiences that user forgets his real environment, effectively causes the computer to become a non profit. In order to achieve the goal of true immersion, developers have to get input methods that are more natural for users. While a user is aware that the interaction device is not completely immersed.


  • Immersive virtual reality
  • No immersive virtual reality
  • Semi reality immersive virtual


In a virtual reality environment, a user of immersion experiences, or the feeling of being inside and part of that world. It is also able to interact with their environment significantly. The combination of a sense immersion and interactivity is called telepresence.

Jonathan Steuer science team described him as "the degree to which one feels present in the mediated environment, rather than the immediate physical environment. "In other words, an effective VR experience makes you aware of your surroundings and focus on real their existence within the virtual environment

Jonathan Steuer Proposal two main components of the dive:

  • The depth of the information
  • The breadth of information.

The depth of information refers to the amount and quality of data signals from a user receives when interacting in a virtual environment. For the user, this could refer to the resolution of a monitor, the complexity of environmental graphics, and the sophistication of the system's audio output.

Extent of Information as the "number of sensory dimensions simultaneously presented. "A virtual environment experience has a wide range of information if it stimulates all your senses. Most virtual environment experiences priority to visual and audio components through other factors to sensory stimulation, but a growing number of scientists and engineers are exploring ways to incorporate user a sense of touch. Systems that provide a user response force and tactile interaction are called haptic systems.

NO DIP Virtual Reality:

Non-immersive systems, as its name implies, involve the application of VR immersion techniques. Using the desktop system, the virtual environment is viewed through a doorway or window using a standard high-resolution monitor. The interaction with the virtual environment can be produced by conventional methods such as keyboards, mice and trackballs or can be improved through the use of 3D interaction devices.


  • A large screen monitor
  • A large screen projection system
  • Multiple projection television systems

IMAX theaters like sing a wide field of view, these systems increase the sense of immersion or presence experienced by the users' systems semi-immersive therefore provide a greater sense of presence that immersive systems and also a greater appreciation of the scale. In addition, images can be provided that a much higher resolution than HMDs and this application offers the ability to share the virtual experience. This can have considerable benefit in educational applications, because it allows the simultaneous experience of the VE is not available with head-mounted systems immersion.


Immersion in a virtual environment is one thing, but for a user to feel truly involved must also be an element of interaction. The first applications using the common technology VE systems now allows the user to have a relatively passive experience. Users can watch a movie pre-recorded while using a head mounted display (HMD). They sat in a chair movement and see the film as the system subjected to various stimuli such as blowing air on them to simulate wind. While users a sense of immersion, interactivity simply change your point of view looking around him. His path was predetermined and unalterable.

Interactivity depends on many factors. Steuer suggests that three of these factors are speed, ranking and mapping. Steuer defined as the rate the rate that a user's actions are incorporated into the computer model and is reflected in a way the user can identify through the senses. Range refers to the number of possible outcomes could result from any particular user action. The mapping system is the ability to produce natural results in response to the actions of a user.

Navigation in a virtual environment is a type of interactivity. If a user can manage their own movement in the environment, can be called an interactive experience. Most virtual environments include other forms of interaction, because users can easily become boring after a few minutes of exploration.

Mary Whitton Computer notes that designed the poor interaction can drastically reduce the sense of immersion, while finding ways to attract users may increase. When a virtual environment is interesting and attractive, users are more willing to suspend disbelief and immersion.

also true interactivity includes the possibility of modifying the environment. A virtual environment of good will respond to user actions in a way that makes sense, but it only makes sense in the field the virtual environment. If a virtual environment changes in strange and unpredictable ways, you run the risk of altering the user's sense of telepresence.



data gloves offer a simple means of gestures to computer commands. Instead of drilling the commands on the keyboard, which can be tricky if you are using a head-mounted display or operating the boom, the computer is programmed to switch modes in response to gestures made with data gloves.

pointing up may mean closer, pointing down, zoom out. A shake your fist may signal the computer to finish the program. Some people in the computer program to imitate his hand movements in the simulation, for example, to see their hands, while conducting a virtual symphony.


Wands, easier interface devices, come in all shapes and variations. Most buttons feature on and off to control the variables in a simulation or data screen. Others have knobs, dials or levers. Its design and shape of the response to a new measure of the application.

Most wands operate with six degrees of freedom, ie, pointing a wand at an object may change its position and orientation in any of the six directions: forward or backward, up or down or left or right.

Steppers LADDER:

stair steppers are an example of unlimited demonstrations interface devices. As part a simulated battle field, the engineers of the Army Research Laboratory a stair stepper equipped with detection devices to detect speed, direction and intensity of the movements of a soldier in response to the battle scenes projected onto a screen mounted on the head. The feedback provided stair stepper the soldier making the ladder easier or more difficult to climb.


Mounted head SCREEN:

Looking like motorcycle helmets large, head-mounted displays are actually portable display screen to add depth to otherwise flat images. If you look inside the hull you will see two lenses through which you look at a display screen. As a simulation begins, the computer projects two slightly different images on the screen: a presentation of the object as seen through its right eye, the other through his left. These two stereo images melts your brain into a 3D image.

To track your movements, a device at the top of the hull of the signs of his relationship with head movements tracking device stationary. Moving the head forward, backward or sides, or look in a different direction, a computer simulation continuously updated to reflect his new perspective.

As the head mounted unit shows the environment, which are favored by operators who want to feel VR carriers absorbed in the virtual environment, such as flight simulators. And as expected, these screens are also popular among the entertainment industry.

Data gloves and tubes are the most common interface devices used with screens mounted.


The Binocular Omni Orientation Monitor or the pen, is similar to a head assembly, except there is no fussing with a helmet. viewbox boom is suspended from one of two parts, the swing arm. Simply place the front against the two lenses and boom you're in the virtual world. To change their perspective on an image, the handles on the side of the box to see and move around the image in the same way you would if it were real: Bend at him from below, walk around it to see it from behind. The control buttons at the height of the handles are often serving as an interface but can connect data gloves or other interface devices.



One of the newest, most of "immersion" the CAVE virtual environment (CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment).

It provides the illusion of immersion by projecting images stereo on the walls and floor of a cube the size of a room. Several people using lightweight stereo glasses can enter and walk freely in the cave.


A variety of input devices such as data gloves, joysticks, and hand tubes allow the user to navigate through a virtual environment and interact with virtual objects. directional sound, tactile and force feedback devices, voice recognition and other technologies are being used to enrich the immersion experience and to create more "sensualized" interfaces.

SHARED Environments Virtual:

Three networked users in different locations (worldwide) meet in the same virtual world using a device of AUGE, a system CAVE, and a head-mounted screen, respectively. All users see the same virtual environment from their respective points of view. Each user is presented as a virtual human (Avatar) to other participants. Users can see each other, communicated with each other and interact with the virtual world as a team.


As virtual environments are supposed to simulate the real world, by building them we must

aware how to "trick the user's senses" This problem is not a trivial task

and the resolution good enough, has not yet found: on the one hand, we must give

user a good feeling of being immersed, and on the other hand this solution should be feasible.

• The view …………….. 70%

• audience ………….. 20%

• odor ……………… 5%

• touch ……………… 4%

sense taste • ………………. 1%

Human vision provides most of the information passed to our brain and captures most of our attention. Therefore, the stimulation of the visual system plays a role in "trick the senses" and has become the focus of the investigation.


  Tracking devices are intrinsic elements in any system virtual reality. These devices communicate with the system processing unit, saying that the orientation of a user's perspective. On systems that allow a user to move within a physical space, sniffer to detect where the user moves the direction and speed. There are several different types of systems tracking systems used in virtual reality, but they all have some things in common. They can detect six degrees of freedom (6-DOF) – are the subject of position in the x, y and z coordinates of an area and orientation of the object. The guidance includes an object yaw, pitch and rocking.

From a user perspective, this means that when using a HMD, the view changes when you look up, down, left and right. Also change if you tilt your head at an angle or move your head forward or backward without changing the angle of his gaze. HMD's followers say the CPU in which it is looking for, and the CPU sends the images directly to the HMD screens

Each monitoring system has a device that generates a signal, a sensor that detects signal and a control unit that processes the signal and sends it to the CPU. Some systems require that you set the sensor component to the user (or user's computer). In this type of system, place the signal transmitters at fixed points in the environment. Some systems are reversed, with the user to emitters, surrounded by sensors connected the environment.

The signals sent from the transmitters to the sensors can take many forms, including electromagnetic signals, acoustic signals, the optical and mechanical signals. Each technology has its own advantages and disadvantages.

Tracking systems ELECTROMAGNETIC

Magnetic trackers are monitoring devices commonly used in immersion applications.Measure magnetic fields generated by running an electric current sequentially through three coiled wires arranged in a direction perpendicular to each other. Each small coil becomes a electromagnet system and sensors to measure its magnetic field affects the other coils. This measurement tells the system the direction and guidance of the issuer. A good system Electromagnetic tracking is very sensitive, with low latency.

One disadvantage of this system is that anything that can generate a magnetic field can interfere with the signals sent to the sensors.


It emits sound waves and the effect of ultrasound to determine the position and orientation of a target. Most measure the time it takes for sound to reach an ultrasonic sensor. In general, the sensors are stationary in the environment – the user takes the pingers. The system calculates the position and orientation of the target, according to the time it took the sound to reach the sensors.

Disadvantages: The sound travels relatively slowly, so the rate of change in the target of a position is also slow. The environment can also adversely affect the efficiency of the system due to the speed of sound through air can change depending on temperature, humidity in the environment.

OPTICAL-tracking devices:

Use light to measure a target position and orientation. The issuer of the signal in an optical device typically consists of a set of infrared LEDs. The sensors are cameras that can detect the infrared light emission. The LED on sequential pulses. The cameras record pulsed signals and send information to the processing unit of the system.

Disadvantages: Infrared radiation can also make a more effective system.


Trust a physical connection between the target and a fixed reference point. A common example of a monitoring mechanism in the field of VR is the BOOM display. A screen BOOM is a HMD mounted on the end of a mechanical arm that has two points of articulation. The system detects the position and orientation through the arm. The discount rate is very high, with mechanical tracking systems, but the disadvantage is that a user limit range of motion.


As technology evolves virtual reality, applications of VR become literally unlimited. It is assumed that VR will reshape the interface between people and information technology, offering new forms of communication of information visualization.

Two approaches to developing current VR:

  • Modeling the Real World
  • Summary display.



One area in which virtual reality has tremendous potential in architectural design. Are already creating architecture that allow designers and clients to review the homes and office buildings, inside and out, before building. With reality Virtual designers can interactively test a building before construction starts.


The military have long been advocates of virtual reality technology and development. Training programs can include everything from vehicle simulations anti-square. In general, virtual reality systems are much safer and in the long run, less expensive than alternative training methods. Soldiers who have gone through virtual training conducted have proven to be as effective as those who trained under traditional conditions.


For years, virtual environments have been used to treat anxiety disorders with exposure therapy. Psychologists treat phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder by the patient's exposure to them causes anxiety and let the anxiety dissipates itself. But this is difficult if the stressor is a battlefield in Iraq. military psychologists use simulated situations to treat Iraq war soldiers. Other therapeutic uses include the VR fear of flying, fear of elevators, and even a yearning "virtual tar" simulator for the addiction to smoking.


virtual reality environments have also been used for training simulators. The earliest examples were flight simulators (Microsoft Flight Simulator "), but the VR training has expanded beyond that. There are many examples of modern military, including Iraqi cultural situations and combat simulators for the soldiers.

Flight simulators are a good example of a VE system that is effective within strict limits. In a good flight simulator, the user can take the same flight path in a wide range of conditions. Users can feel what it feels like to fly through storms, fog and wind calm. Realistic simulators are effective and safe flight training tools, and although a sophisticated simulator can cost tens of thousands of dollars cheaper than a real aircraft (and difficult to damage in an accident). The limitation of flight simulators from the perspective of virtual reality is they are designed for a particular task. You can not leave a flight simulator and remain within the virtual environment, and can not do anything other than a pilot, while the inside of one.


Virtual reality (VR) can be described as a breakthrough technology that allows students passage through the computer or television screen in a world of three dimensions, simulated by computer to learn.


One outcome of the investigation of virtual reality is the existence of totally independent virtual worlds, inhabited entirely by the avatars of users the real world. These worlds are sometimes referred to as massively multiplayer online games and the World of Warcraft is the game's largest virtual world in use now, with 11.5 million subscribers.

The Nintendo Wii:

Probably the most successful cousin of virtual reality in the market today is the Nintendo Wii. The Wii is its motion capture concepts and intuitive interaction with virtual reality technologies of the past. The controller is basically a simplified version of virtual reality glove. "Both the Wiimote and the Wii Fit offer another way to interact with its virtual environment without using any bulky equipment.


Modern medicine has also found many uses for virtual reality. Doctors can interact with virtual systems to practice surgical procedures or to make small procedures in a larger scale. The surgeons have also begun to use virtual "twin" of his patients, the practice of surgery before the procedure itself. In medicine, staff can use virtual environments to train in everything from surgical procedures for the diagnosis of a patient. Surgeons have used virtual reality technology, not only to train and educate, but also to perform the surgery remotely using robotic devices.

Researchers are using virtual reality technology to create images in 3-D ultrasound to help physicians diagnose and treat congenital heart defects in children.


  The other most common approach to the application of VR is in areas where large amounts of summary data must be handled, examined or accessed. These visualizations ranging from common databases, such as maps, micro and macro structures such as molecular architecture or social networks. By combining VR with Geographic Information Systems (GIS), geographic information can be explored in three dimensions or information contained in a database can view and navigate.

Almost any situation that requires interaction with the information (mathematical algorithms, including can benefit from virtual reality display. Users can view and interact with information through multi-dimensional graphical representations (combined with text tracks). These representations increase the ability of users to analyze the underlying data by eliminating the need for them to build their own mental image data.


As the number of applications of virtual reality (VR) has grown, it has also no change in the different formats of VR-type software. Each format has different approaches and different degrees, three-dimensionality, immersion and interaction.


Some programmers to imagine the development of the Internet in a virtual three-dimensional space in which to navigate virtual landscapes through access to information and entertainment. Web sites could take shape as a place of three dimensions, allowing users to explore an much more literal way than before. Programmers have developed several different programming languages and Web browsers to achieve this vision. Some of these include:

  • Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) – the three dimensions of the earliest modeling language for the Web.
  • 3DML – A three-dimensional modeling language that the user can visit a point (or on the website) through Internet browsers after installing a plug-in.
  • X3D – VRML replacing language as the standard for the creation of virtual environments on the Internet.
  1. X3D VRML97 replaced. From VRML97 standard is a subset of X3D, VRML files can be processed by the new X3D browsers.
  • Activity Design Collaborative (COLLADA) – A file format used to allow trade within the three-dimensional programs.


  • Bottleneck bandwidth transmission
  • display technology in 3-D tightly integrated with the data warehouse
  • Preserving the integrity of the database in a shared user environment


  • Virtual Theme Park
  • Virtual Mall
  • Real-time conferencing
  • Flight Simulation
  • Game Experience


Three-dimensional (3-D), multi-user online environments are a revolution of interactivity by creating compelling online experience.

E-VE offers buyers the ability to study the product carefully.

Provides e-buyer confidence that what they see is really what they're going to get. Give a better description.


Tele-education, telemedicine, tele-banking, tele-work becomes possible. Improved ways to help people interact with each other and the computer.

Application of VR and Telecommunications

  • Telemedicine
  • Tele-education
  • Tele-Training
  • Tele-banking
  • Tele-work


Using VR to manage networks of broadband telecommunications

  • VR user interfaces for broadband network
  • Structure allows network, the flow of information to be displayed
  • Therefore, immediately responds by VR, reducing errors
  • Act as if the real world using data gloves.


Most applications of Reality Virtual today do not conform to reality and have a poor quality, but still very useful, but there are a lot of improving to be more comfortable and intuitive

The interaction with virtual worlds.

The major challenges in the field of virtual reality are developing better tracking systems, finding ways natural to allow users interact in a virtual environment and decreasing the time it takes to build Virtual spaces. While there are some companies monitor system that have existed since the early days of virtual reality, most companies are small and do not last long.

The greatest interest was paid to the visual feedback and visual resolution display technologies is

Far below the eye's ability to resolution, brightness and ranges color does not cover the entire range of perception eye (range of brightness and gamma, respectively), and finally the area of

Seeing is relatively narrow. All of these drawbacks make virtual worlds appear "artificial" and the unreal, which contributes heavily to the simulator of the disease.

Without well-designed hardware, users might have problems with their sense of balance and inertia with a decrease in the sense of telepresence, or the experience cyber disease with symptoms that can include nausea and disorientation. Not all users appear to be at risk of cyber disease – some people can explore a virtual environment for hours no ill effects, while others may feel nauseous after only a few minutes

Some psychologists are concerned that the immersion Virtual environments could psychologically affect a user.


Technology has transformed the world in which we live, changing the way we spend our time, how we understand ourselves and how we interact with others. Technological innovation in the results of social and economic change. Therefore, virtual reality will allow the development of a virtual world. And it is the virtual world that promises to restructure human life and activity.

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